The funeral of celebrated South African anti-apartheid activist Ahmed Kathrada on Wednesday was transformed into a rally against President Jacob Zuma, who had been barred from the event.
The family of the African National Congress (ANC) stalwart, one of Nelson Mandela's closest colleagues in the struggle against white minority rule who died on Tuesday aged 87, had asked Zuma to stay away.
It was however attended by vice president Cyril Ramaphosa, cabinet ministers and all of the country's living post-apartheid former presidents.
In a fiery eulogy, former president Kgalema Motlanthe said Kathrada was "deeply disturbed by the current post-apartheid failure of politics".
"He found current leadership wanting on many fronts... and would not hesitate to call for the resignation of the president of the country with whom the buck stops," said Motlanthe.
After his retirement from politics in 1999, Kathrada kept a low profile, but in recent years had spoken out against corruption and failings in the ruling ANC.
Kathrada openly criticized the current government of Zuma, which has been accused of corruption, mismanagement and of failing to transform the lives of black South Africans.
Zuma's office said in a statement issued ahead of the service that he would "not attend the funeral and memorial service in compliance with the wishes of the family".
Kathrada was among those tried and jailed alongside Mandela in the 1964 Rivonia trial, which drew worldwide attention to the brutalities of the apartheid regime.
He died in hospital in Johannesburg after a short illness following brain surgery.